Monday, August 22, 2011

Arini tibe2 teringt ttg perbincangan smlm antara aku, nordin n fmly die... tibe2 smlm rasa berdebar2.. persoalan y bermain difikiran ku... adkah aku bersedia utk mendirikan rmh tngga? dr segi fizikal yer sudah tp mental yer mcm ne? agak btul jgk apa y mak nordin bgtau.. nk kawen ni kite kna pegang pd 10B.. bersabar, ......... y paling penting, berkorban.. adkh aku snggup berkorban? insyaAllah aku sanggup berkorban tp aku perlukan sokongan dr fmly aku n kekuatan dr Mu.... aku mmg xterdaya kalu bersendirian...

awk, sy mmg cintakan n sygkan awk... xde org lain dlm hidup sy kecuali awk.. awk pelengkap hidup sy... dikala sy sedih... awk slalu ajk sy kuar.. nk hepy kan sy.. awk, maafkan sy jikalau ade terkasar bhasa dgn awk..

awk, terima kasih sbb jd pelengkap hidup sy... awk, sy berharap kite akn bhagia n hbgn kekal ke akhir hayat.. insyaAllah... awk, sy bersedia utk jd permaisuri hati awk.. tp awk? dh sedia? dr segi mental? rohani? kewangan?...... sy harap awk bersedia.... insyaAllah

Thursday, August 18, 2011

Friday, August 12, 2011

Sharing info....

sape tau apa itu "autoclave"?? sy pun bru tau ape itu "autoclave".. disini sy nk share info sikit.

A medical autoclave is a device that uses steam to sterilize equipment and other objects. This means that all bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores are inactivated.

Autoclaves are found in many medical settings and other places that need to ensure sterility of an objects. Many procedures today use single-use items rather than sterilized, reusable items. This first happened with hypodermic needles, but today many surgical instruments (such as forceps, needle holders, and scalpel handles) are commonly single-use items rather than reusable. See waste autoclave.

Because damp heat is used, heat-labile products (such as some plastics) cannot be sterilized this way or they will melt. Some paper or other products that may be damaged by the steam must also be sterilized another way. in all autoclaves, items should always be separated to allow the steam to penetrate the load evenly.

Autoclaving is often used to sterilize medical waste prior to disposal in the standard municipal solid waste stream. This application has grown as an alternative to incineration due to environment and health concerns raised by combustion by products from incinerators, especially from the small units which were commonly operated at individual hospitals. Incineration or a similat thermal oxidation process is still generally mandated for pathological waste and other very toxic and/or infectious medical wastes.

There are physical, chemical, and biological indicators that can be used to ensure an autoclave reaches the correct temperature for the correct amount of time.

Chemical indicators can be found on medical packaging and autoclave tape, and these change color once the correct conditions have been met. This color change indicates that the object inside the package, or under the tape, has been processed. Biological indicators contain spores of a heat-resistant bacterium, Geobacillus stearothermophilus. If the autoclave does not reach the right temperature. when incubated the spores will germinate, and their metabolism will change the color of a pH-sensitive chemical.

Some physical indicators consist of an alloy designed to melt only after being subjected to the relevant holding time. If the alloy melts, the change will be visible.

Some computer-controlled autoclaves use an F0 (F-nought) value to control the sterilization cycle. F0 values are set as the number of minutes of equivalent sterilization at 121 or 249 degree Celsius. Since exact temperature control is difficult, the temperature is monitored, and the sterilization time adjusted accordingly.